Using the Atacama Large Millimeter / Submillimeter Array (ALMA), partnered with the European Southern Observatory (ESO), astronomers have for the first time clearly detected the presence of disks around planets outside the solar system. Observations will shed new light on how the Moon and planets are formed in young star systems.
“Our job is disk Miriam Benisti, a researcher at the University of Grenoble and the University of Chile in France, led a new study announced today. Astrophysical Journal Letter.. “Our ALMA observations were taken at such an exquisite resolution that we could clearly identify that the disc was associated with a planet and limit its size for the first time,” she adds.
The disk in question, called the Circumplanetary Disk, surrounds the extrasolar planet PDS70c, one of two giant Jupiter-like things. Planet It orbits a star nearly 400 light-years away.Astronomers had Tips found Previously, there was a “moon-forming” disk around this exoplanet, but until now its detection could not be confirmed because the disk could not be clearly distinguished from the surrounding environment.
In addition, with the help of ALMA, Benisti and her team have enough mass for the disk to be about the same diameter as the distance from the Sun to Earth and to form up to three moon-sized satellites. I found that there is.
But the results are not just the key to knowing how satellites are generated. “These new observations are also very important to prove the theory of planet formation that could not be tested before,” said the researcher and author of the Earth and Planetary Institute at the Carnegie Institute of Science in the United States. One Jehan Be says.
Planets form in a dusty disk around a young star, which opens up cavities as it devours matter and grows. In this process, the planet can acquire its own circumplanetary disk. And it contributes to the growth of the planet by adjusting the amount of matter that falls on it. At the same time, the gas and dust in the circumplanetary disk can become larger objects due to multiple collisions, eventually leading to the birth of satellites.
However, astronomers do not yet fully understand the details of these processes. “In short, it’s still unclear when, where, and how planets and satellites are formed,” explains Stefano Faccini, an ESO Research Fellow who is also involved in the research.
“More than 4000 exoplanets have been discovered so far, all of which have been detected in mature systems. The PDS70b and PDS70c, which form a system reminiscent of the Jupiter-Saturn pair, have so far. Only two exoplanets have been detected, in the process of formation, “explains Miriam Kepler, a researcher and co-author of the study at the Maxplank Institute of Astronomy in Germany.
“Therefore, this system provides us with a unique opportunity to observe and study the formation process of planets and satellites,” adds Faccini.
The two planets that make up the system, PDS70b and PDS70c, were first discovered using ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT) in 2018 and 2019, respectively. Its unique nature means that it has been observed many times with other telescopes and instruments since then.
The latest high-resolution ALMA observations give astronomers more insight into the system. In addition to confirming the detection of the circumplanetary disk around the PDS 70c and examining its size and mass, the PDS 70b did not show clear evidence of such a disk, and the PDS 70c lacked dust material from the birth environment. Indicates that you are. ..
A deeper understanding of the planetary system is achieved with the ESO’s Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) currently under construction in the Atacama Desert, Chile’s Atacama Desert. “ELT will be key to this study because it can map the system in great detail at much higher resolutions,” said co-author Richard Teague, a researcher at the Center for Astrophysics. Harvard & Smithsonian, USA. In particular, ELT’s mid-infrared ELT Imager and Spectrograph (METIS) will allow teams to study the movement of the gas surrounding the PDS 70c and obtain a complete 3D image of the system.
This study was published in a treatise entitled “Circumplanetary Disk Around PDS70c”. Astrophysical Journal Letter..
“Circumplanetary disk around PDS70c” Astrophysical Journal Letter (2021). iopscience.iop.org/article/10. … 847 / 2041-8213 / ac0f83
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